BENEFIT-REALISE Lessons learned: ‘One Timad (0.25ha) package for PSNP households’, a way for food self-sufficiency and resilience building
BENEFIT-REALISE baseline study in the PSNP woredas indicated that productivity of wheat is about 1.6 tons/ha which is a fourth of the potential yield of improved wheat technologies released by the research system. And one of the challenges faced by PSNP households is the costly and unaffordable standardized extension package for wheat designed for 0.5 ha of land. In response the programme developed a wheat extension package for one timad (0.25 hectare) at a cost of 1000 birr (30 USD).
The one timad package was designed with three objectives in mind: (i) to downscale the package size of seed and fertilizer that match the need and capacity of PSNP households; (ii) to provide PSNP farmers access to improved practices through an interest free credit arrangement; and (iii) to minimize risk for farmers in taking up new technologies by introducing proven technologies at the right (small) scale, with adequate hands-on training and follow-up. The pilot also aims the show the need to customize extension packages that meets the need of PSNP farmers with small landholdings.
A total of 60 PSNP client households were selected from Tach Gayint and Enebise Sarmidir woredas to use improved wheat varieties, namely Tay and Qaqaba, with the recommended seed and fertilizer rate and improved agronomic practices on their 0.25ha of land. Small packages (13.5-15 kg) of NPSB fertilizer NPSB and small (12.5) packages of UREA were prepared according to the recommendations, and distributed on credit with cash repayment arrangements.
Yield gain and return on investment
Compared to the baseline and the kebele average productivity of 1.65 t/ha, the pilot in Tach Gayint woreda resulted in a yield of 3.5 t/ha, which is 118.75% increase in productivity of wheat when using compost together with the 1000-birr wheat technology package. It resulted in a yield of 2.53 t/ha, a 58.31% increase, using the 1000-birr package only (without compost). In Enebise Sarmidir woreda, the 1000-birr wheat technology package has resulted in 2.89 t/ha yield, 81.25% yield increase. The small 1000-birr package applied together with compost had the highest return on investment.
Return on investment
In Tach Gayint woreda farmers invested ETB 1662.78 and ETB 1750.66 in Enebise Sarmidir woreda for seed and fertilizer respectively to cover 0.25ha of land. For fertilizer application and planting in a row they used additional labour of two man-day and those who applied compost used an additional two man-day for transporting. The highest Net Return (NR) was obtained with a small package applied with compost followed by the package applied without compost.
- The small 1000 birr package of improved wheat technology proved to benefit PSNP farmers and similar interventions may result in higher return. The pilot was successful in encouraging farmers to use the recommended seed and fertilizer since it is less costly and the in-kind credit arrangement and suitable repayment period made it possible. The combined push of technology with the necessary hands-on training and follow up enhanced the confidence of the PSNP farmers. In addition, the yield increase on their 0.25ha assured calorie self-sufficiency.
- Initially the one timad package was designed for 1000 Birr investment considering that the inorganic fertilizer in the package would be supplemented by application of farm compost. But because of the late approval of the pilot, only 5 farmers in Tach Gayient prepared the farm compost. Hence, the farmers mostly applied inorganic fertilizers.
- Initially, there was low interest of stakeholders and participants which delayed process of obtaining legal approval for the down-scaled packaging of fertilizer and seed required.