Smallholder poultry enterprise bringing opportunity to unemployed youth and becoming a source of improved poultry breed
A recent BENEFIT-REALISE Hawassa University Cluster (HwU) pilot is registering impressive results towards addressing youth unemployment and bridging the gap in demand and supply of chicken meat and egg. The pilot study on the potentials of small-scale poultry enterprises to create jobs to unemployed youth and serve as dissemination sources for improved poultry breeds started in the second half of 2019.
The majority of rural households in the southern part of Ethiopia mostly maintain few native chickens, in their homes. Although native chicken breeds are well adapted to the management conditions, their productivity is low, creating a gap in demand and supply of chicken meat and egg and resulted in increased price of these commodities. On the other hand, with few exceptions of some chicken farms around Debrezeit and few other places, large scale commercial poultry production is not widely practiced in Ethiopia. Taking this problem into consideration, REALISE Programme, Hawassa University cluster started to explore the feasibility and potential of small-scale poultry enterprises to create jobs to landless and unemployed youth (scale able youth employment).
The pilot study was implemented in two kebeles namely Kutuambe in Bolosso Bombe woreda, Wolaita zone and Mesena kebele in Kachabira woreda of Kambata Tembaro zone. The two woredas were selected due to (i) prevalence of very high youth unemployment rate (ii) shortage of improved poultry breeds; and (iii) interest and commitment of the woreda and kebele officials
Major activities implemented
- Active engagement of stakeholders was taken as a key factor for the success of the initiative. Therefore intensive dialogues were made with the relevant woreda and kebele officials and experts before implementation of the activity. To these effects, the cluster approached the woreda stakeholders, reached agreement on operational modalities and roles and responsibilities of the different parties. The discussants included woreda level Administrator, agricultural office head, livestock office head, cooperative office head, job creation office head, women and youth office head and food security desk head. At kebele level discussion was made with the kebele leader and livestock and agricultural extension workers.
- Two poultry houses, each with a capacity of 1000-1500 chickens, were established at the two sites. At Kutuambe, a new low-cost poultry house was constructed jointly by the project and the woreda. The project provided industrial products such as cement and corrugated iron sheet while the woreda provided locally available materials such as construction timber and labor. The chicken house at Mesena was an old store which was renovated jointly by REALISE HwU cluster and the kebele, on a cost-sharing arrangements. In addition, materials necessary to raise day-old chicken which included brooder boxes, feeders, drinkers, vaccines, feed for two months, etc. were provided for the poultry houses.
- Selection of young women and men was made jointly by the Job creation office, cooperative office, the kebeles and REALISE HwU cluster, strictly based on a criteria that the youth should be sons or daughters of PSNP members, and don’t have land or other jobs. A total of 20 youth comprised of 13 female and 7 male were selected for both poultry centers, i.e. 10 for each center.
- The youth groups were then given legal status by the woreda. A chairperson, deputy chair person, secretary and treasurer were nominated among the team members.
- The youth groups and woreda/kebele stakeholders were given three days intensive training on technical aspects of poultry production, and management of poultry as a business (record keeping, financial management, team work, marketing, etc.)
- Two thousand day-old chicken were purchased from Debre zeit Research Center (1000 for each site) and transported to the sites. The cost per day-old-chicken was birr 10.00birr). The koekoek breed of chicken was selected since it has dual purpose (egg and meat), and tolerant to disease and local management conditions, and is suitable to the local growing conditions. Another advantage of this breed is that their egg is fertile and can be hatched locally, while other commercial poultry breeds produce infertile eggs that can be used only for food.
- Proper support and coaching were given to the youth groups by the REALISE team on handling of the chickens, close follow up for the first three days, followed by weekly visits.
- In the first round of production, the chickens were sold within the respective woredas at the age of 45-60 days in the center. At Bolosso Bombe 980 chickens were sold and gross revenue of Birr 98,000.00 was collected by the youth group (association). Out of this. Birr 20,000.00 was paid to the youth members; 2000.00 each, for the two months engagement on the activity (Birr 1000.00/month, which is going to be increased as the capital grows), feed and vaccine was bought for the second round, and Birr 54,000.00 was deposited in the youth association’s bank account. At Kachabira, the youth group generated gross revenue of Birr 92,000.00 from sale of 1000 chickens. Out of these the youth group members received Birr 2000.00 each, and additional expenses (feed, vaccine, etc.) incurred for the second round of production and Birr 36,000.00 was deposited in their bank account. Wihich means, in the first round of production, a total of Birr 90,000.00 was saved by the two youth associations, indicating very good prospects of these enterprises. However, effective linkage should be established with input suppliers and market outputs to sustain profitability of the enterprises.
- Chicken mortality was very low (about 1%), and the high survival rate was attributed to; a) maintenance of warm temperature for the first two weeks by using brooder boxes and straws; b) proper administration of vaccine at the recommended intervals; c) use of recommended feed types depending on their growth stage (starter feed until three weeks and normal feed after that); d) maintenance of sanitation of the poultry house and the equipments; and e) genetic capacity of the Koekoek breed to tolerate disease.
- Organizing and engaging youth in small-scale poultry production is profitable and can create employment opportunity for rural unemployed youth;
- Youth poultry enterprises can serve as sources to disseminate improved poultry breeds to rural communities;
- Selecting poultry breeds that fit with the climatic and management environments of the rural settings is critical for the success and profitability of poultry enterprises;
- Although day-old chicken are highly sensitive to cold temperature and commonly raised in areas where there is electricity, it is possible to raise them in areas where there is no electricity by using facilities (such as booder boxes) that can maintain suitable temperature; and
- Engagement and active participation of relevant woreda and kebele stakeholders is very important for the success of youth-based rural poultry enterprise.
By Tesfaye Abebe, PhD, BENEFIT-REALISE Programme – Hawassa University cluster manager